Refraction and Refractive

Refraction and Refractive Errors of the Eye

We know that the Sun is the main source of light. Light is the form of energy that has the capacity to undergo various phenomena. Light undergoes diffraction, reflection, refraction, interference, and polarisation. Light is one of the key elements for a clear and distinct vision. Among various phenomenons, refraction is the main occurrence that helps in focusing the light on the retina. Solar energy is the radiation from the Sun which is capable of generating heat/electricity, and it causes chemical reactions. In this session, let us know more about refraction.

We know that light can behave as a wave as well as a particle. This concept is explained using wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. Wave can be represented in one-dimension and two-dimensional as well. One dimensional wave is represented by using an oscillating sine function. The two-dimensional wavefront concept is used to represent two-dimensional waves since a simple sine function can represent only one-dimensional wave.

 Changing of the Direction of a Wave

We know that when light travels from one medium to another, it changes its direction; this concept is known as refraction. Refraction is the phenomenon of the bending of a wave when it passes from one medium to another. Light bends due to the differences in density between the two substances.

Did you know other than light waves, sound waves as well as water waves undergo refraction. Due to the atmospheric refraction, even the stars twinkle. The formation of a rainbow is the most ideal example to explain the refraction of light. Mirage is also caused by the refraction of light.

We know that when the white light is passed through an optical device like a prism, it splits the light into its constituent colours like yellow, green, red, blue, orange, indigo, and violet. This wonderful process takes place due to the refraction of light. 

 Various Refractive Errors

When the speed at which light propagates varies at different points of the wavefront, the shape and orientation of the wavefronts may differ by the process of refraction of light. 

The refractive errors of the eye can be cured by wavefront LASIK. The wavefront LASIK helps to cure various refractive errors of the eye like myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. LASIK is a refractive surgery that is used for the correction of refractive errors. It is laser eye surgery or laser vision correction surgery. 

Myopia is also known as nearsightedness. It is the condition where the person can see objects which are nearer but cannot see objects which are farther away. Faraway objects seem blurry. This condition can be cured by using lenses of proper refractive measure and also by LASIK surgery. 

Hypermetropia is another refractive error of the eye, which is also referred to as far-sightedness. In this condition, light is focused behind the retina instead of focusing on the retina; hence the image of a nearby object is formed behind the retina. Usage of proper corrective lenses, spectacles, and LASIK surgery helps to overcome hypermetropia.

Astigmatism is a treatable refractive error that occurs in the curvature of the eye. This refractive disorder causes blurred distance and near vision. Glasses or contact lenses and laser-assisted surgery can help to treat astigmatism.